An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumour cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels.
Many abnormal cells normally undergo a programmed form of death (apoptosis). Activated oncogenes can cause those cells to survive and proliferate instead. Most oncogenes require an additional step, such as mutations in another gene, or environmental factors, such as viral infection, to cause cancer. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Many cancer drugs target those DNA sequences and their products.
The death-inducing signaling complex or DISC is a multi-protein complex formed by members of the death receptor family of apoptosis-inducing cellular receptors. The typical example is FasR, which forms the DISC upon trimerization as a result of its ligand (FasL) binding. Dogma states that the DISC is composed of the death receptor, FADD, and caspase 8. It transduces a downstream signal cascade resulting in apoptosis.
Caspases are essential in cells for apoptosis, or programed cell death, in development and most other stages of adult life, and have been termed "executioner" proteins for their roles in the cell. Some caspases are also required in the immune system for the maturation of lymphocytes. Failure of apoptosis is one of the main contributions to tumour development and autoimmune diseases; this, coupled with the unwanted apoptosis that occurs with ischemia or Alzheimer's disease, has stimulated interest in caspases as potential therapeutic targets since they were discovered in the mid-1990s.
p53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53), is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. p53 is important in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer. As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome", the "guardian angel gene", and the "master watchman", referring to its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation.
The p21(WAF1) protein binds directly to cyclin-CDK complexes that drive forward the cell cycle and inhibits their kinase activity thereby causing cell cycle arrest to allow repair to take place. p21 can also mediate growth arrest associated with differentiation and a more permanent growth arrest associated with cellular senescence. The p21 gene contains several p53 response elements that mediate direct binding of the p53 protein, resulting in transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the p21(WAF1) protein.
You'll need an actual Mac to create the thumb drive (some Hackintoshes may work; mine didn't). Search your favorite torrent site for iPortable Snow and download it. While it's downloading, format your external hard drive or thumb drive (You'll need at least an 8 GB thumb drive for this). Open up Disk Utility and select the drive you want to put OS X on. Go to the Partition tab and create one partition, formatted as Mac OS Extended (Journaled). Hit Options and make sure you're using the Master Boot Record option. Then hit Apply to format the drive.
Mad2 (mitotic arrest deficient 2) is an essential spindle checkpoint protein. The spindle checkpoint system is a regulatory system that restrains progression through the metaphase-to-anaphase transition.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of proteinkinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. They are also involved in regulating transcription, mRNA processing, and the differentiation of nerve cells.  They are present in all known eukaryotes, and their regulatory function in the cell cycle has been evolutionarily conserved. In fact, yeast cells can proliferate normally when their CDK gene has been replaced with the homologous human gene.  CDKs are relatively small proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 34 to 40 kDa, and contain little more than the kinase domain.  By definition, a CDK binds a regulatory protein called a cyclin. Without cyclin, CDK has little kinase activity; only the cyclin-CDK complex is an active kinase. CDKs phosphorylate their substrates on serines and threonines, so they are serine-threonine kinases. The consensus sequence for the phosphorylation site in the amino acid sequence of a CDK substrate is [S/T*]PX[K/R], where S/T* is the phosphorylated serine or threonine, P is proline, X is any amino acid, K is lysine, and R is arginine
Cyclin B is a mitotic cyclin. The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the activity of the cyclin B-Cdk complex rise through the cell cycle until mitosis, where they fall abruptly due to degradation. The complex of Cdk and cyclin B is called maturation promoting factor or mitosis promoting factor (MPF).
Ubiquitin binds to proteins and labels them for destruction. The ubiquitin tag directs proteins to the proteasome, which is an organelle in the cell that degrades and recycles unneeded proteins. This discovery won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2004.
Ubiquitin tags can also direct proteins to other locations in the cell, where they control other protein and cell mechanisms.
In biology, scaffold proteins are crucial regulators of many key signaling pathways. Although scaffolds are not strictly defined in function, they are known to interact and/or bind with multiple members of a signaling pathway, tethering them into complexes. In such pathways, they regulate signal transduction and help localize pathway components (organized in complexes) to specific areas of the cell such as the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, the nucleus, the Golgi, endosomes, and the mitochondria.
The MAP kinase signaling cascade has been well-conserved in evolution from yeast to mammals. Cascades convey information to effectors, coordinate incoming information from other signaling pathways, amplify signals, and allow for a variety of response patterns. They respond to different stimuli by phosphorylating cytoplasmic components and nuclear transcription factors depending on the cellular context. Down-regulation of MAP kinase pathways may occur through dephosphorylation by serine/threonine phosphatases, tyrosine phosphatases, or dual-specificity phosphatases and through feedback inhibitory mechanisms that involve the phosphorylation of upstream kinases. Drugs that selectively down-regulate MAP kinase cascades could prove to be valuable as therapeutic agents in the control of malignant disease.
This gene is similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.
When a growth factor binds to the extracellular domain of an RTK, its dimerization is triggered with other adjacent RTKs. Dimerization leads to a rapid activation of the protein's cytoplasmic kinase domains, the first substrate for these domains being the receptor itself. The activated receptor as a result then becomes autophosphorylated on multiple specific intracellular tyrosineresidues.
Key components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. "P" represents phosphate, which communicates the signal. Top, epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR) in the cell membrane, starting the cascade of signals. Further downstream, phosphate signal activates MAPK (also known as ERK). Bottom, signal enters the cell nucleus and causes transcription of DNA, which is then expressed as protein.
Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, is a pigment of the retina that is responsible for both the formation of the photoreceptor cells and the first events in the perception of light. Rhodopsins belong to the G-protein coupled receptor family and are extremely sensitive to light, enabling vision in low-light conditions. Exposed to light, the pigment immediately photobleaches, and it takes about 30 minutes to regenerate fully in humans.
Due to its ability for autophosphorylation, CaMK activity can outlast the intracellular calcium transient that is needed to activate it. In neurons, this property is important for the induction of synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII blocks the induction of long-term potentiation. Upon activation, CaMKII phosphorylates postsynaptic glutamate receptors and thus changes the electrical properties of the synapse.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for CALcium MODULated proteIN) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in all eukaryoticcells. It can bind to and regulate a number of different protein targets, thereby affecting many different cellular functions.
Column chromatography in chemistry is a method used to purify individual chemical compounds from mixtures of compounds. It is often used for preparative applications on scales from micrograms up to kilograms.