First, you’ll need to get a Smartmedia/xD card reader. The reason for this is Smartmedia and xD flash cards are basically just NAND flash chips in a friendly, removable card. Other types of flash media also use NAND, but have a controller in them that handles the interfacing between the flash chip and the host, be it a camera, cell phone, card reader, etc. This controller gets in the way or reading data off embedded chips, because they are looking for partitions/files in a particular formats (FAT16 for example) that embedded flash rarely uses. Typically, we’d be trying to get the raw data off the embedded NAND to study.
V-USB is a software-only implementation of a low-speed USB device for Atmel’s AVR® microcontrollers, making it possible to build USB hardware with almost any AVR® microcontroller, not requiring any additional chip.
The test directly detects genetic sequences associated with TB and drug-resistant TB. Although researchers have known about these sequences since the mid-1990s, incorporating the molecular technologies needed to detect them into tests for the developing world has been impractical until recently, says David Persing, the chief medical and technology officer at Cepheid, the California-based company that manufactures the test.
The test starts by adding a simple chemical mixture—sodium hydroxide and alcohol—to the patient sample to kill off any TB, eliminating the need for expensive biosafety equipment. Then the sample is transferred to a closed cartridge that uses microfluidics to purify the patient's DNA and detect the target sequence. All the clinic staff has to do is wait for a printout that tells them whether a patient has TB and if it is drug-resistant.
The WikiReader just got a bit more content where the phrase “a bit” refers to 33,000 books. The landslide of content comes from Project Gutenberg, which is now available on the little e-reader. The entire Project Gutenberg library can be fitted onto a 4GB microSD card and then slid into the WikiReader. It actually works a lot like Wikipedia currently on the device. Users can access articles, books and also search by keyword.
The microscopic battery’s anode is made from a single nanowire just 100 nanometers wide and 10 micrometers long, in comparison, its lithium cobalt oxide cathode is huge at three millimeters in length. While it may not resemble a battery, the Sandia team have created a single tin oxide (SnO2) nanowire that will help scientists discover what occurs inside lithium-ion storage devices and how they charge and discharge.
At the heart of Ion Torrent's technology is a semiconductor chip manufactured in the same foundries as computer and cell-phone microprocessors. The chip holds an array of 1.5 million sensors, each topped with a small well designed to hold a single-stranded fragment of DNA. To sequence a strand of DNA, the machine synthesizes a complementary strand, sequentially attempting to add each of the four bases that make up DNA one by one to the well. When the correct base is incorporated into the growing sequence, it triggers a chemical reaction that releases a positively charged hydrogen atom, which is detected by the sensor. A computer stitches together the sequence by integrating these signals with knowledge of when each base was flowed through the chip.
The device is so much cheaper than other machines because of its simplicity; the chip itself detects the sequence, and it does so electronically. Other devices use optical systems, which require lasers, cameras, and microscopes. (These devices also read DNA sequence by synthesizing a complementary strand—but chemicals used in the reaction have to be modified to fluoresce when added to the growing piece of DNA; a camera detects the flashes of light.) "It's a simple system to implement," says Nusbaum of Ion Torrent's technology. "Not just the machine, but also the infrastructure around it."