Sixty years ago, on Dec. 16, 1947, three physicists at Bell
Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., built the world's first transistor.
William Shockley, John Bardeen and William Brattain had been looking
for a semiconductor amplifier to take the place of the vacuum tubes
that made radios and other electronics so impossibly bulky, hot and
power hungry. They were so instantly certain they'd found their answer
that they didn't speak a word of it to anyone for six months, until
they could experiment further and apply for patents. News Link